Belenggu is a novel by Indonesian writer Armijn Pane, first published in 1940. It is considered the first psychological novel in Indonesian literature, as it explores the inner conflicts of the characters and their relationships. The novel tells the story of a love triangle between a doctor, his wife, and his childhood friend, who is now a prostitute. The novel was inspired by the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud and used techniques such as stream of consciousness, ellipsis, and monologue to convey the characters' emotions.
The novel was rejected by Balai Pustaka, the official publisher of the Dutch colonial government, because it was deemed immoral. It was then published by Poedjangga Baroe, a literary magazine that Armijn co-founded in 1933. The novel received mixed reactions from the public, some praising it for its realistic portrayal of the intellectual dilemmas of Indonesian society, while others condemning it for its sexual and controversial themes. The novel has been translated into several languages, including English.
The novel can be downloaded as a PDF file from this link[^1^]. The PDF file contains 536 pages and is formatted according to the original publication. The novel is divided into three parts, each consisting of several chapters. The novel also includes an introduction by Muhammad Balfas, who called it \"the best Indonesian novel from before the war of independence\".
Belenggu is a novel that reflects the social and cultural changes that Indonesia underwent during the colonial era. It challenges the traditional values and norms of Indonesian society and exposes the psychological complexities of human nature. It is a novel that deserves to be read and appreciated by anyone interested in Indonesian literature and history.
Analysis of Belenggu
The novel Belenggu can be analyzed from various perspectives, such as sociological, psychological, and literary. In this article, we will focus on some of the main aspects of the novel's analysis.
The novel Belenggu reflects the social and cultural changes that Indonesia underwent during the colonial era. The novel portrays the conflicts and dilemmas of the Indonesian intellectuals who were torn between the traditional values and norms of their society and the modern influences and aspirations of the Western civilization. The novel also shows the impact of colonialism on the Indonesian society, such as the economic exploitation, the political oppression, and the cultural assimilation.
The main characters of the novel represent different social classes and backgrounds. Tono is a doctor who has received a Western education and works in a modern profession. He is respected and admired by his patients and colleagues, but he is also dissatisfied and unhappy with his personal life. He feels alienated from his wife Tini, who is also a Western-educated woman, but who has different interests and goals than him. Tini is a social activist who is involved in various organizations and movements that aim to improve the condition of women and children in Indonesia. She is independent and assertive, but she also feels lonely and unloved by her husband. She seeks fulfillment and happiness outside her marriage, but she also feels guilty and conflicted about her choices. Yah is a prostitute who has a tragic past. She was forced to marry a man she did not love by her parents, and she ran away from him to Jakarta. She became a singer and a courtesan, using different names and identities to hide her true self. She is in love with Tono since their childhood, but she also knows that their relationship is doomed and immoral.
The novel Belenggu applies the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud to explore the inner conflicts and motivations of the characters. The novel uses techniques such as stream of consciousness, ellipsis, and monologue to convey the characters' thoughts and feelings. The novel also uses symbols and metaphors to express the subconscious desires and fears of the characters.
The main theme of the novel is the Oedipus complex, which is a psychological phenomenon that describes a child's unconscious sexual attraction to their parent of the opposite sex and hostility to their parent of the same sex. According to Freud, this complex is resolved by identifying with the parent of the same sex and developing a superego, which is a moral conscience that regulates one's behavior according to social norms. However, if this complex is not resolved properly, it can lead to neurosis or perversion in adulthood.
In the novel, Tono suffers from an unresolved Oedipus complex. He has an idealized image of his mother, who died when he was young. He seeks a woman who can replace his mother's love and care, but he also feels guilty for betraying his father's memory. He marries Tini because she resembles his mother physically, but he soon realizes that she is not like his mother psychologically. He feels disappointed and resentful towards Tini, who does not fulfill his expectations of a traditional wife. He then falls in love with Yah, who reminds him of his childhood friend and lover. He feels happy and comfortable with Yah, who treats him like a son and a husband at the same time. He also feels attracted to Yah's singing voice, which symbolizes his mother's voice.
Tini also suffers from an unresolved Oedipus complex. She has a negative image of her father, who was abusive and violent towards her mother. She seeks a man who can protect her from her father's tyranny, but she also feels rebellious against her father's authority. She marries Tono because he is a doctor who can provide her with security and status, but she soon realizes that he is not like her father psychologically. He feels indifferent and distant towards Tini, who does not fulfill his needs of a modern woman. She then seeks fulfillment and happiness in her social activities, which symbolize her father's activities. 061ffe29dd